I began a new journey two years ago (May, 2016), tracing two long arcs in my life:
- Climbing all 48 mountains in New Hampshire that are at least 4000 feet tall (1219m), what is called “peak-bagging” by local climbers. I’m describing, in words and images, the ascent of each of these peaks – mostly done solo, but sometimes with a friend or two;
- Working in international development during the MDG era: what was it like in the sector as it boomed, and evolved, from the response to the Ethiopian crisis in the mid-1980’s through to the conclusion of the Millennium Development Goals in 2015.
Picking up the story in July of 2009, I flew to Sydney for what would become 6 great years as ChildFund Australia’s first International Program Director; Jean would join me there in a few weeks. In two previous blog entries of this series, I described how I was thinking about programming, and about putting together a strong set of teams in Sydney and overseas, as I approached this exciting new challenge.
In many ways, as I headed towards Sydney, I was hoping to put it all together: 25 years in international development and social justice, designing and implementing programs and partnerships, building cohesive and high-performing teams – this was my chance to start afresh with all of the lessons learned over those decades. To really get it right.
In this article, I want to introduce the program team at ChildFund’s head office in Sydney – the “International Program Team” – share a bit about the great people I worked with, along with a description of how the team’s staffing and structure evolved. I would approach this task very mindful of what I had learned in Plan International, especially how we refocused and restructured the agency; and keeping the lessons about building strong teams in complex situations, that I had learned at UUSC in my mind also.
But first: I climbed Mt Moriah (4049ft, 1234m) on July 22, 2017, with Kelly Royds and Raúl Caceres, friends from Australia who, coincidentally, had worked at ChildFund (but not on the IPT.) We had hiked up Mt Pierce and Mt Eisenhower a year earlier, in August of 2016…
Raúl and Kelly came up from Cambridge the day before, and we left Durham at about 7:45am, and stopped for sandwiches and coffee in Ossipee on the way north. Traffic was heavy on this summer weekend, so it wasn’t until 10:45am that we reached the trailhead in Gorham, in the northern reaches of the White Mountains.
Mt Moriah is the northern-most of the six 4000-foot peaks in the Wildcat-Carter range. I had climbed Wildcat “D” and Wildcat Mountain (on one day), and Middle and South Carter (on the next day), in September of 2016, solo; and I had summited Carter Dome on 9 July, 2017, with our friend Draco. So Moriah was the last of these six that I would climb.
Moriah is an “easy to moderate” hike, and we had a nice day for the climb: not too hot, partly cloudy and a bit misty. It’s 4.5 miles up, and we retraced our steps from the top.
The trail climbs moderately from the trailhead just outside of Gorham, reaching a ledge outlook at Mt Surprise. There, views opened to the west towards the Presidential range:
This ledge area seemed unusual to me – not so high in altitude, but quite alpine in nature: low pines and large areas of lichens, as if we were at a much greater elevation:
I guess the conditions here were affected by a combination of elevation and latitude: since we were at the northern end of the White Mountains, perhaps the winter weather would be a bit more severe?
It was a bit misty, with views that were not quite as dramatic as last time I was up on this range, but still very impressive. There is a short boggy area near the top.
We reached the spur path to the summit of Mt Moriah at 2pm. From here it wasn’t too far to the top.
The summit itself is a small, rocky clearing, and on this day it was quite crowded, so we ate a late lunch at an outlook a short distance from the top, with great views to the north:
An outcropping was visible to the south, without anybody on it. It looked like there would be great views from there so, after lunch I thought that I would go ahead to try to get to it. Maybe the view there would be worth the walk. When we reached the intersection with the Kenduskeag Trail, Kelly and Raúl decided to wait for me there; I kept going, hoping to reach that outcropping.
Taking first the right-hand turn (along the Carter-Moriah Trail, coincident with the Appalachian Trail here) and then doubling back to explore briefly along the Kenduskeag Trail, I just couldn’t find that outcrop. After poking around a bit, I headed back to where I had last seen Raúl and Kelly, but they had gone. So I began the descent back to the trailhead.
Soon I passed a couple who were climbing up, and I asked them if they had seen my friends. No! Whoops! Clearly we had gotten separated at the top, so I asked the couple to tell Raúl and Kelly that I had begun the descent. A few minutes later I was able to get reception on my cellphone, and rang Raúl: sure enough, they were waiting for me back at the summit! In retrospect, I should have thought of that – of course they would want to wait where there was a view! – but I had been too tired to climb back up there, and assumed that they were feeling similarly.
From their perspective, as I was descending, Raúl and Kelly became worried that I was lost and perhaps injured. Finally they decided that it would be best to walk to the trailhead, and then I called Raúl and we realized what had happened.
I descended as we had ascended, a beautiful day for a hike in the White Mountains:
Nearing the trailhead, I came across part of an old car that I hadn’t seen on the way up:
I arrived back at the trailhead at 5pm, and Kelly and Raúl finished at about 6:30pm. Despite our inadvertent (and temporary!) separation, all turned out OK and it was a pleasant and enjoyable day. Mt Moriah, peak number 33, was climbed – 15 more to go!
When I arrived in Sydney, one of my first tasks was to finalize the structure of the new International Program Team (“IPT”), and complete its staffing. Having spent lots of time and energy worrying about structure in previous roles (particularly at the International Headquarters of Plan International – see this blog), I was thinking about this in two ways:
- Because structure has a strong influence on behavior, I wanted to keep the IPT’s structure lean, flat and close to the field, and efficient, cost-wise;
- Because with the right people, structure wasn’t the most important thing, I wanted to not worry about it too much: just get the right people, make as good a structural decision as I could, and then get on with the work and let things evolve through intentional, restorative, reflective learning.
It turns out that these two aims are fairly consistent. Yes, structure does have a strong influence on behavior, so it’s important not to get it wrong. And, within reason, flatter structures are better: fewer levels of bureaucracy between field and senior management keeps things a bit more grounded in the reality of our NGO work. Flatter structures help keep head-office costs down, also. But I had also learned an important lesson along the way: hire great people, make roles very clear and connected to the organization’s mission and people’s passions, and then let things evolve, reflecting and learning-by-doing. Don’t obsess too much about structure.
So that’s what I did.
When I arrived in Sydney, the IPT was in flux. Even though ChildFund Australia had been working in Papua New Guinea for fifteen years, and in Viet Nam for a decade, the main role of Sydney-based program staff at that point was to oversee projects funded through the Australia-NGO Cooperation Program (“ANCP”) of AusAID (the Australian Government’s overseas aid agency), implemented by the US member of the ChildFund Alliance, confusingly-named ChildFund International. This meant that the IPT had little role with regards to ChildFund Australia’s own programming…
In 2009, ChildFund Australia was preparing for growth: our private income was growing strongly, and because the new Labor government was promising to strongly-increase overseas development assistance in line with international commitments, and we had just become top-tier ANCP “Partners” with AusAID, it looked like that income stream was also going to grow quite rapidly. Part of that preparation for growth resulted in the creation of my new role as International Program Director, which would assume the management of ChildFund Australia’s three (becoming five) Country Directors.
ChildFund Australia’s organizational structure as I arrived in Sydney looked something like this:
- Five Department Directors worked with Nigel: Bandula Gonsalkorale (Finance and IT); Jan Jackson (HR); Lynne Joseph (Sponsor Relations); Di Mason (Fundraising and Marketing); and me;
- Initially we had three Country Directors, handling program implementation and reporting to me: Carol Mortenson (Cambodia); Smokey Dawson (PNG); and Peter Walton (Viet Nam). Peter also handled regional responsibilities for the Mekong, supervising ChildFund’s research into setting up operations in Laos. I will share more about these Country Directors, and their successors and teams, in upcoming articles in this series…
And in the Sydney Program Department, five positions were in the FY2010 budget (in addition to my own):
- Veronica Bell had just left ChildFund, taking up a position at the Human Rights Council for New South Wales. So her International Program Manager position was vacant;
- Richard Geeves had just joined, only a few days before my arrival, as International Program Coordinator for the Mekong programs (Cambodia and Viet Nam). Richard had long experience in the education sector in Australia (including in indigenous areas), and was recently returned to Australia after many years working from Cambodia;
- Rouena (“Ouen”) Getigan had joined ChildFund several years earlier, and therefore was our repository of wisdom and knowledge; the rest of us were new, but Ouen knew how things worked! She handled relations with our ChildFund partners in Africa and Asia that were funded through the ANCP program, and did an outstanding job of building and maintaining these partnerships. In addition, to support a large regional HIV and AIDS project in Africa, Ouen supervised a very capable Kampala-based project coordinator, Evas Atwine;
- Terina Stibbard, like Richard, had just joined ChildFund, only a few days before my arrival, as International Program Coordinator for Papua New Guinea. Overflowing with passion for the work, and with a tireless commitment, Terina took on what was perhaps our biggest challenge: building a strong program in PNG. I will write much more about PNG in a future blog post in this series. Also, among other things, Terina introduced us to the concept of “critical friend,” which perfectly captured the IPC role with our Country Offices: without direct authority, but able to advise and speak truth directly without harming relationships;
- And Nigel had left one position undefined, for me to consider.
Interviews for the Mekong and PNG roles had begun before I was hired, but before finalizing things with Richard and Terina, Nigel and Jan had consulted me, asking if I wanted them to wait until I got to Sydney before finalizing these hires. But Richard and Terina looked great to me, on paper, and I saw no reason to delay.
In terms of the program-team’s structure, I didn’t see any reason, at this point, for the extra structural level implied by the “International Program Manager” role. Over time, I saw things might evolve in three general domains:
In the Program Support domain, one group of staff in Sydney would accompany Country Directors and, most directly, the Program Managers in our program countries, helping develop projects and programs with the greatest impact on the causes of child poverty in each location. In the Program Development area, Sydney staff would provide technical and systems support, establishing standards and helping measure results. Finally, of course, we had a general function of Program Implementation – our Country Directors.
As we will see, in fact, the IPT structure did in fact evolve in this way.
So here is the first iteration of the IPT structure, put in place soon after my arrival:
Richard, Ouen, and Terina focused mainly on “Program Support” duties, working directly with our Program Managers in Cambodia, PNG, and Viet Nam, and with ChildFund partner offices in Asia and Africa to help them develop and implement, and learn from, increasingly sophisticated programming. Two new hires, Jackie Robertson and Cory Steinhauer, joined ChildFund to support program development: Jackie was focused on developing the policies and standards that would govern our work; and Cory would focus on building a development-effectiveness framework through which we would design our programs and measure our results.
Here are some images of that first IP team:
This structure worked very well. In terms of how I managed the team, from the beginning I tried to put in place a range of “restorative” practices, aimed at keeping the team together, keeping us grounded and motivated:
- Every Monday morning at 10am, we had a team checkin. I had learned how to do this from Atema Eclai at UUSC, though I had to adapt it quite a bit: Australians weren’t enthusiastic about the “touchy-feely” aspects of checkins like Atema’s. So we limited things to a brief general chat followed by a discussion of priorities for the week. This seemed to work very well, settling us into the week smoothly, and was replicated by the team even when I was away;
- Every month or two, we had a formal IPT Meeting. These events had agendas, minutes, pending-action-items lists, etc. They were business meetings, which I would chair, meant to be efficient fora for decision-making and accountability. They worked very well. For example, I had learned how to use “pending-action-items” lists from Max van der Schalk while working at Plan’s international headquarters, and the introduction of this tool was very important at ChildFund: decisions that required action went onto the list, organized in order by date, and stayed on the list until they were completed or the IPT agreed to remove them. This provided a strong element of accountability and was a helpful irritant that kept us from neglecting decisions and becoming less accountable. Once the ChildFund Australia “Development Effectiveness Framework” (“DEF”) was completed, we introduced a short reflection from a field case study at the beginning of each IPT Meeting, to help ground us in the reality of our work; much more detail about the DEF will come in a future blog in this series;
- My intention was to complement the formal IPT meetings with periodic reflection meetings about a topic related to our work. These sessions wouldn’t have agendas or minutes, much less structured and more relaxed than the IPT Meetings, and would be chaired by different members of the IPT who had expressed an interest in a particular topic – micro-finance, human rights, direct giving, etc. These sessions were always interesting and useful, and energizing, so I regret not organizing more of them. Somehow they seemed to drop off the agenda with the fast pace of work, over time, and I don’t think that I fully realized the potential of this concept;
- I tried to have an open door policy, available for IPT members at any time. I made sure to close my door only when necessary, and to invite any team member to come in and sit down whenever they dropped by. I think this was helpful in creating and sustaining a culture of caring and support, clearly communicating to everybody that helping the team was my main job. Of course, there were times when my office door needed to be closed – for the discussion of sensitive matters, particularly on the phone with our Country Directors – but I had learned at UUSC to be quite mindful of asking permission to close my door, to enhance transparency and make sure people were comfortable. As with the team checkins, it seemed that our mostly-Australian staff viewed this habit of mine – asking permission to close my door – as a bit silly. But I think it was helpful;
- Of course, I carried out an annual performance review of each member of the team, and spent lots of time preparing these documents. I tried to be balanced, but to always include areas for improvement – loyal readers of this blog will remember my experience with Pham Thu Ba, back in Plan Viet Nam: when I finished her first performance review, which was stellar, she told me I wasn’t doing my job if I couldn’t help her improve! This made a big impression on me, and even though western culture these days seems to only value praise, I wanted to honor Thu Ba’s example in my work in Australia. This worked well, most of the time!;
- In addition to the yearly performance review process, I tried to have some less-formal, one-on-one time with each IPT member every year. I’d invite them for coffee or lunch, and have an open, unstructured chat about how things were going. I wasn’t able to make this happen as often as I wanted, but it was a very useful mechanism, helping surface concerns and opportunities that I might not have appreciated otherwise;
- Finally, also dating from my time in Viet Nam, I adapted and used a “Team Effectiveness Assessment” for use with the IPT, and was able to use this tool to formally assess how we were progressing. The framework I used came from a great workbook that I had discovered at Asia Books in the Bangkok Airport, back when I worked in Hanoi in the late 1990’s: “The Team-Building Workshop,” by Vivette Payne. The approach included in the book outlined eight elements of team effectiveness, and a survey was included that could be used to measure the status of a particular team. Starting with how I had used the survey in Hanoi, I now adapted the survey and used it four times with the IPT, tracking results and identifying areas that we could focus on to improve (in yellow):
You can see that our overall score, a measure of team effectiveness, improved from 197.1 in March, 2011 to 230.6 in December of 2011, and then moved back down to 204.1 in January of 2014. I think that the decrease in score reflects the arrival of several new IPT members, and the corresponding need to settle the team down into new roles and relationships.
Each time we used this tool, we identified areas for focus, which are initiated in yellow: for example, in October of 2012 we looked to focus on “Roles” and “Team Relationships” and “Skills & Learning.” I found the tool to be practical and very useful, though not to be taken too literally; discussion of results and team reflection on next steps was more important than the numerical scoring… and the fact that I was using this tool periodically gave the team a message that I was taking our effectiveness seriously, and investing my time, and all of our time, on improving the team environment.
In one of my blogs about UUSC, I described how I had created the “UUSC Handbook,” to enhance clarity of how things would be done in that agency. From my perspective, as Executive Director there, the UUSC Handbook was a big success, notwithstanding its large size. Given the tensions that existed in that agency, having an agreed, approved set of standards and procedures was helpful, and since it mainly simply codified and clarified existing practices, it didn’t create too much bureaucracy.
I replicated this approach at ChildFund Australia, creating the ChildFund “Program Handbook.” Like its UUSC predecessor, the Program Handbook was quite complex and bulky to produce and update, which happened periodically … they were both meant to be living documents. And it contained much content that was already existing, just needing to be codified.
But, unlike the UUSC Handbook, ChildFund’s document contained much that was new: our Theory of Change and our Development Effectiveness Framework, and a range of program policies – these were new, developed by the new IPT, and represented the ongoing maturing of ChildFund’s programming.
A copy of a version of the ChildFund Australia Program Handbook is here (Program Handbook – 3.3 DRAFT ); even though this is marked as “Draft,” I think it was the final update that we issued before I left Sydney in 2015.
Two years later, in 2011, ChildFund Australia was growing strongly, and we had commenced operations in Laos. The IPT structure in Sydney evolved consistently with this growth:
Carol Mortensen continued as CD in Cambodia, but changes had been made in PNG and Viet Nam, and we had started operations in Lao PDR:
- Andrew Ikupu, a very-experienced Papua New Guinean, had replaced Smokey Dawson as CD in PNG. Andrew had long experience working in development in his country, and had a PhD from the University of South Australia in Adelaide;
- Deb Leaver had taken over from Peter Walton in Viet Nam. I had first met Deb in late 2009, when I visited ActionAid Australia, where Deb was Program Director, and she had been probably the most welcoming of my peers in Sydney. We were lucky to hire Deb to follow Peter;
- Chris Mastaglio, with his able colleague Keoamphone Souvannaphoum, had helped ChildFund with the initial research into why, how, and where we should work in Laos. Once we made the decision to start working there, we were fortunate that both Chris and Keo were available to join ChildFund: Chris as CD, and Keo as Program Manager (and, later, as CD when Chris transitioned to head up a regional sport-for-development program).
We were very lucky to have Andrew, Chris, Deb and Keo join ChildFund Australia.
In Sydney, things had also evolved. Cory Steinhauer had departed, and Richard Geeves had moved over from Program Support (where he had served as IPC for the Mekong) to work on Development Effectiveness. He was quite good at this role: while I was the primary architect of ChildFund’s Development Effectiveness Framework, which I will describe in detail in a future blog post in this series, Richard was an able foil, working to keep things simple and practical, and he had a good touch with the field, keeping the implementation of what was a new, challenging system on track, with good humor.
John Fenech joined the Program Development team, helping our Country Offices prepare grant proposals. Relative to our size, ChildFund Australia had a lower proportion of income from technical grants (bilateral, multi-lateral, foundation) than our peer organizations, and John’s role was to build our portfolio. Although John was one of the younger members of the IPT, he brought a vivid countercultural sense, sometimes seeming to date more from the 1970’s than from the 2010’s. In a good way…
Terina remained engaged with PNG, and she was doing a fantastic job working with Andrew Ikupu and his Program Manager Manish Joshi (later becoming CD there). As a result, our programs in PNG were really taking off – growing in size, impact, and sophistication, and diversifying in income source. And Ouen continued to work with our ChildFund International partners across Africa and Asia as they implemented an increasing number of ANCP-funded projects.
As our programs were expanding, two new IPCs had joined, working with our programs in the Mekong: Caroline Pinney took over support from Cambodia and Laos, and Maria Attard worked with our team in Viet Nam, while also coordinating research and initial engagement in Myanmar. Caroline brought long experience in Asia, with AVI (the Australian volunteer-sending agency), and a very strong level of dedication and passion for our work. Maria’s work had been in Cambodia (working with women and children that had suffered from domestic violence) and the Pacific (in the disability sector), before returning to Australia (continuing in the disability sector). Maria brought a welcome sense of activism to the team, building on her advocacy work in the disability sector. Both Caroline and Maria showed remarkable dedication to the heavy workload and complicated realities of the programs that they supported.
Finally, in this second iteration of the IPT structure, we decided that the scale of operations was large enough to merit a program officer to provide a range of support services to the team. Initially we wanted to hire an indigenous Australian, accessing subsidy programs offered by the government. This was Terina’s idea, and was a very good one, but we were never able to make it work due to complicated and dysfunctional bureaucracy on the government side.
So we shifted concepts, and decided instead to look towards recent graduates in international development. Given how many people were finishing degrees in the field, and how few jobs there were, we thought it would be good to make the position time-limited – giving new graduates some real work experience, and some income, while taking some administrative load off of the rest of the IPT. And then booting them out into the real world.
We recruited externally, and were able to hire a very smart, extremely hard-working new graduate, Mai Nguyen. From then on, Mai handled a range of administrative and program-support duties with great efficiency and good humor.
Here are images of that iteration of the IPT:
In 2014 we introduced IPT’s third structural evolution, the last version of my time as International Program Director. At this point, our scale had grown further, with the addition of Myanmar and, with 11 direct reports, I was having trouble providing proper individual attention to everybody. So we introduced a new level, partly to break my “span of control”: so Ouen and Richard became “Managers”:
Ouen would be handling Program Development and the support of our Development Effectiveness Framework, and Richard moved to manage Program Support while also serving as IPC for PNG (after Terina Stibbard departed.) This allowed me to give priority attention to the five Country Directors now reporting to me, and to Ouen and Richard.
Here is an image of that final iteration of the Sydney-based team:
We had upped our technical support capacity, by recruiting Sanwar Ali from Oxfam Australia; he would head support for our increasing Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response efforts. John Fenech had moved to serve as IPC for Cambodia, allowing Caroline Pinney to focus on Cambodia, and Mai Nguyen had moved to serve as IPC for Myanmar, allowing Maria Attard to focus on Viet Nam. To replace John in the grant-development role, we (re)hired Sarah Hunt, who was quickly very successful in bringing in additional resources to the program; Sarah had served on the IPT before my arrival, and we were lucky to bring her back, thanks to Ouen’s strong recommendation. Sarah made grant development look easy, which it certainly isn’t!
This team worked very well, and seemed harmonious and effective. Ouen and Richard were good, supportive managers of their teams, and I was able to spend much more time with our Country Directors.
In my last article in this series, I shared a framework that I developed over time, for thinking about effective teams in NGO settings:
In that article, I said that “… our INGO teams will perform strongly if:
- their task is clear, accountability is clear, what we are supposed to do, and why, is clear, and if how to carry out our tasks is clear;
- we operate in a context of high trust;
- the inspiration that we bring to our work is refreshed periodically. And:
- the normal wear-and-tear on our human relationships, the harm done over time, is restored intentionally.”
How did we do in ChildFund Australia’s IPT?
- Clarity: We did fairly well here. I was careful to engage with the IPT to make sure that their roles and jobs were clear, and the work we did to develop a programmatic Theory of Change and Development Effectiveness Framework also greatly enhanced clarity. The preparation and frequent updating of the Program Handbook also provided clarity, though perhaps was viewed as a bit bureaucratic by some. But, overall, I’d say things were clear;
- Trust: this is a bit harder to judge, for me, because it was my job to create and maintain an environment of trust. Trust comes from a combination of competence and honesty, and I feel that IPT members viewed me as quite competent and honest. For example, I decided to share minutes of all Senior Management Team meetings with IPT members at our IPT Meetings – orally, in summary, and omitting any confidential content. I think that sharing this information helped reinforce a sense of transparency. But of course many factors were beyond my control, and I was imperfect in my communications skills;
- Inspiration: I think we did fairly well here, I tried to bring a sense of the realities in the field into all our meetings, and into board and Senior-Management meetings, using (for example) case studies from our Development Effectiveness Framework to reconnect us with the deeper motivations that brought us into the NGO sector. Again, I was imperfect in this, but I think we did pretty well;
- Restorative Practices: earlier in this article I described my efforts to build restorative practices into the ongoing context of the IPT, and I think these worked very well.
Overall, perhaps a solid B+.
That’s some of the story of ChildFund Australia’s International Program Team, from 2009 through 2015. ChildFund’s work expanded enormously during that time, and the IPT managed to support that expansion smoothly, with increasing attention to the quality and sophistication of our programming.
It did come at a financial cost: program support increased from around 4% of funds remitted to international programming in 2010, to 6.7% in 2015. My sense is that the gains in effectiveness and impact were well worth this investment – I will explore this in more depth in an upcoming post in this series.
I enjoyed working with the IPT, and learned a lot from them. Morale was good, consistently, and though I can’t take sole credit for that success, I think that the approach we took helped.
With gratitude and warm appreciation to:
- Sanwar Ali
- Maria Attard
- John Fenech
- Richard Geeves
- Rouena Getigan
- Sarah Hunt
- Manasi Kogekar
- Mai Nguyen
- Caroline Pinney
- Jackie Robertson
- Cory Steinhauer
- Terina Stibbard
Stay tuned for more blog posts about ChildFund Australia: our Theory of Change and Development Effectiveness Framework, our work and great teams in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Viet Nam, and much more…
Here are links to blogs in this series. Eventually there will be 48 articles, each one about climbing one of New Hampshire’s 4000-footers, and also reflecting on a career in international development:
- Mt Tom (1) – A New Journey;
- Mt Field (2) – Potable Water in Ecuador;
- Mt Moosilauke (3) – A Water System for San Rafael (part 1);
- Mt Flume (4) – A Windmill for San Rafael (part 2);
- Mt Liberty (5) – Onward to Colombia, Plan International in Tuluá;
- Mt Osceola (6) – Three Years in Tuluá;
- East Osceola (7) – Potable Water for Cienegueta;
- Mt Passaconaway (8) – The South America Regional Office;
- Mt Whiteface (9) – Empowerment!;
- North Tripyramid (10) – Total Quality Management for Plan International;
- Middle Tripyramid (11) – To International Headquarters!;
- North Kinsman (12) – Fighting Fragmentation and Building Unity: New Program Goals and Principles for Plan International;
- South Kinsman (13) – A Growth Plan for Plan International;
- Mt Carrigain (14) – Restructuring Plan International;
- Mt Eisenhower (15) – A Guest Blog: Max van der Schalk Reflects on 5 Years at Plan’s International Headquarters;
- Mt Pierce (16) – Four Years At Plan’s International Headquarters;
- Mt Hancock (17) – Hanoi, 1998;
- South Hancock (18) – Plan’s Team in Viet Nam (1998-2002);
- Wildcat “D” Peak (19) – Plan’s Work in Viet Nam;
- Wildcat Mountain (20) – The Large Grants Implementation Unit in Viet Nam;
- Middle Carter (21) – Things Had Changed;
- South Carter (22) – CCF’s Organizational Capacity Assessment and Child Poverty Study;
- Mt Tecumseh (23) – Researching CCF’s New Program Approach;
- Mt Jackson (24) – The Bright Futures Program Approach;
- Mt Isolation (25) – Pilot Testing Bright Futures;
- Mt Lincoln (26) – Change, Strategy and Culture: Bright Futures 101;
- Mt Lafayette (27) – Collective Action for Human Rights;
- Mt Willey (28) – Navigating Principle and Pragmatism, Working With UUSC’s Bargaining Unit;
- Cannon Mountain (29) – UUSC Just Democracy;
- Carter Dome (30) – A (Failed) Merger In the INGO Sector (1997);
- Galehead Mountain (31) – What We Think About When We Think About A Great INGO Program;
- Mt Garfield (32) – Building Strong INGO Teams: Clarity, Trust, Inspiration.